The QA testing process that was followed in my last company where I worked was as follows:
First of all the Business Requirement Document was prepared as per the client’s requirement (with the muck- up). Then on the basis of the requirement document, QA Team wrote Test Plans, Test Cases and Test Strategies. The developers start coding their modules (started programming). Once the developers finished coding, the Configuration Management Team compiled the code together and prepared a build. This Build will get deployed to different testing environments where different types of testing were performed. Once the defects were found, the testers would log the defect in the defect tracking tool. Once the defects are logged, then those defects would be discussed in the defect status meeting and would take further actions (meaning, closing, reopening, retesting of defects etc).