BA Interview Questions.

SDLC Interview Questions

What is SDLC?

SDLC is a software development lifecycle process used to develop, upgrade or replace information systems.

What are the phases of SDLC process?

Feasibility Study, Requirement/Analysis Phase, Design phase, Development/Construction/Build phase, Testing phase, Deployment/Production phase, Support or Maintenance

Name different SDLC models?

Waterfall, Agile, Spiral, V-Model, RAD, Scrum, JAD, Prototyping. Some uncommonly used are Cleanroom, RUP, Lean and Dual Vee model. Nowadays Agile is used mostly.

What is develop, upgrade or replace in SDLC process?

Develop- create a new product from scratch

Upgrade-make changes to existing system

Replace- remove the existing system and replace it with another new technology/software


What is the difference between waterfall or Spiral model?


Waterfall Model Spiral Model
Product methodology Development methodology
Documentation Prototyping and waterfall is also combined
The requirements are documented in the beginning of the project The requirements are finalized and then documented
Written communication for requirements for each step of the project Prototyping the requirements with changes in each step
The requirements are segregated as functional and non-functional and documented Requirements are prototyped in the sequence of priority
No risk analysis during documentation Risk analysis carried out after each prototype

What do you think is better, the Waterfall Model or Spiral Model?

All depends on the type and scope of the project. Also a life cycle model is selected on the basis of organizational culture and various other scenarios to develop the system.

Agile and Scrum

What are the approx. different percentages of time spent on each phase in RUP projects?

10% – inception

25% – Elaboration

55% – Construction

10% – Transition

Although every project is different and process will be ultimately tailored to the organizational needs to the project.

What is the difference between waterfall and Agile?

Large Projects Smaller projects
Adaptive approach Predictive approach
Involving lesser team members Involving larger team members
Parallel method of process implementation Serial method of process implementation
Fixed time for each iteration No fixed time for each phase
Minimal rules required Large number of rules to be                                                                                                      implemented
Uses demo working software Uses mainly the documentation for software
Continuous customer interaction Customer involved only initially in the project
Quick responses to change Goes through change control board                                                                                                      to implement changes

What are the different agile methodologies used these days?

XP – Extreme Programming


DSDM – Dynamic Systems Development Methodology

FDD – Feature-Driven Development

ASD – Adaptive Software Development



AUP – Agile Unified Process

What is sprint planning in scrum model?

Sprint is a fixed time in scrum model for a deliverable during a phase of the project, usually 30days or less. The sprint planning is a meeting at the beginning of each sprint where the scrum team commits to a specific goal. The planning includes the requirements needed to support the goal and the time for the tasks of the individual members of the team to complete each requirement

What is the role of a product owner in Scrum model?

The product owner:

  • Is a facilitator to drive the development of the project?
  • Learns to maximize return on investment (ROI)
  • Improves the productivity of the development team in any way possible.
  • Attends every sprint planning meeting and keeps information about the team’s progress up to date pertaining to customer’s requirement.
  • A liaison between the project team and the customer and takes the authority of the project till it goes to the customer
  • Should not be a manager of the team and intervene in the issues during the sprint meetings.

Balances the interests of competing stakeholders

What is Product backlog?

Product backlog is a priority list of user requirements, use cases to be done in order to create, maintain and sustain a product. Product owner owns the product backlog.

What is the difference between a product backlog and sprint backlog?

The sprint backlog is a list of tasks identified by the Scrum team to be completed during the Scrum sprint. During the sprint planning meeting, the team selects some number of product backlog items, usually in the form of user stories, and identifies the tasks necessary to complete each user story.

What is an Epic?

An Epic is a large user story. It is depicted in the same form of a user story but has to be broken into smaller user stories which are implementable.

What is a theme?

Theme is a collection of related user stories

What should a good user story have in Scrum Product Backlog?

  • Independent: not dependent on any other user story
  • Negotiable: can be changed and rewritten as a part of an iteration
  • Valuable: should deliver value to the end user
  • Estimate-able: to be able to estimate the size of the user story
  • Sized appropriately: should be able to prioritize or plan with a certainty to some extent.
  • Testable: should be informative for testing to be possible.

What is grooming in agile?

Product backlog refinement also called product backlog grooming is a process of keeping the backlog clean and orderly. This is also a meeting held at the end of one sprint to ensure the backlog is ready for the next sprint.

What are the advantages of agile methodology over the other software development methodologies?

Agile development, due to its innate nature, is both iterative and incremental. Owing to this characteristic, all the development aspects (design, quality, requirements) are constantly reviewed and improved progressively with each sprint. Thus, the product could be adapted at any time based on the client’s need and the level of customer satisfaction is very high.

Why do we use a sprint burndown chart?

A sprint burn down chart is a graphic visualization of the rate of progress of the current sprint. This chart is updated daily over the course of a sprint.

What do you know about the term ‘Spike’ in relation to scrum?

A spike is a time bound activity to conduct analysis or answer question rather than producing shippable product. Spikes are usually planned to take place in between sprints.


What is a story board?

The progress of an agile project is represented by a story board. Usually it is done as blocks with each block indicating the progress of individual development item.

What do you know about Planning Poker?

Planning Poker is an agile planning technique aimed at gaining consensus on the estimated time to complete an activity.

Other Methodologies – Prototyping, RAD etc.

What is prototyping?

In software development, a prototype is a rudimentary working model of a product or information system. It can be used for demonstration or development processes. Mainly done by the design and development team.

What are the advantages of prototyping over documentation?

  • Risks – when a new product development is involved prototyping reduces the risk and helps in risk management and mitigation
  • Funding – prototyping can help demo the new product to potential investors where funding is required for better understanding
  • Gaps – it minimizes the gap between users/customer and technology team

What are the disadvantages of the prototype model?

Disadvantages of the prototype model are as follows:

  • Giving more attention to the prototype can mislead programmers from understanding the original desired system.
  • Client or end user may get confused
  • Programmers may misunderstand objective of the end users.
  • It is very expensive as prototypes requires a lot of effort and time.

What is RAD model?

  • RAD-called Rapid Application Development model is a variation of JAD (Joint Application development) emphasizing on development rather than planning.
  • RAD model is a way of complete development process.
  • This is a quicker model completed in an efficient manner based on level of priorities in descending order.
  • In a RAD model less important design improvements are postponed to the future and software components are reused to save time.
  • This model also involves stand-up meetings and review meetings similar to scrum.

What are the advantages of rapid application development (RAD) model?

Advantages of RAD:

  • It reduces time required for development of software.
  • RAD helps in increasing reusability of components
  • Quick reviews are delivered.
  • RAD encourages end user feedback
  • Owners of business actively participate

What are the disadvantages of rapid application development (RAD) model?

Disadvantages of RAD:

  • It is highly dependent on team and individual performances.
  • System which can be modularized can only be developed using RAD
  • RAD model requires highly skilled programmers/designers.
  • RAD model is highly dependent on how skilfully model is created
  • Implementation cost is high, so should be only used on large projects.

What is AUP? How is it different from RUP?

AUP is Agile Unified Process. This is a simplified version of RUP (Rational Unified Process).

What is V-Model

This is similar to waterfall process involving all the phases of a software development lifecycle from feasibility study to development/implementation of the product. The difference in this model is the phases go through in a vertical manner in a ‘V’ fashion. This is a serial process with the teams not getting interchanged.

Briefly describe the phases in the V-Shaped model.

Phases of V-Shaped model are as follows:

In the V-shape model, verification phases are on the left side. V-shape model consists of:

Requirements Analysis: All the requirement is collected and analysed to understand the problem and propose a solution.

System Design: Analysis of the gathered requirements is done by the engineers and they propose different ways the system can be developed.

Architecture design: Systems architecture consists of different modules, showcasing relationship and communication b/w them.

Module design: Module design details about each of the individual modules in a very detailed manner.

Coding: Coding is at the very bottom of the V-shaped model. In coding phase each of the designed modules are implemented using codes by the developers.

In V-shape SDLC model validation phase is at the right side. It consists of:

Unit testing: Independent modules are tested in the unit testing phase.

Integration testing: All the independent modules are tested to validate interface and find errors in them.

System testing: Entire system is tested by keeping in mind the requirement of the client.

User Acceptance testing: This is the final phase, where client/user himself checks the performance of the system.

What are the advantageous of V-Shaped model?

  • It is very simple and easy to use.
  • All phase has clear and fixed requirement and goal.
  • It has higher chances of success validation processing starts in the beginning itself.


What are the disadvantages of the V-Shaped model?

Disadvantages of V-Shaped model:

  • V-shaped model is inflexible.
  • It is very hard to make changes in requirements
  • Prototype is not available for V-shaped model
  • Its implementation requires skilled resources

When the V-Shaped model should be used?

V-shaped model should be used under below mentioned circumstances:

  • It should be used on projects that are small or medium.
  • It should be used for projects that have clear requirements
  • It should be used when you have technical resources

What is incremental software development life cycle model?

Incremental SDLC approach suggests construction of a partial system rather than the complete system and then builds more functionality into it. Requirements and features are prioritized and categorized and then implemented in phases, each phase based on the waterfall model. The process continues till the complete system is achieved.

What is RUP life-cycle?

RUP involves 4 phases:

  • Inception – involves the idea/concept, requirement documenting and prototyping
  • Elaboration – prove the architecture/design of the product, high risk requirement documentation, 3 different tiers of architecture (presentation, logic and data)
  • Construction – using BA’s documents for user manual and requirements this phase focusses on developing the product until ready for deployment.
  • Transition – focusses on delivery of the system into production.

What is a ‘hump chart’? Where is it used?

A ‘hump chart’ is a visual mechanism to give a rough overview of how much each discipline in RUP lifecycle is executed in each phase. The ‘humps’ differ for each project. The horizontal ‘humps’ for each discipline give a rough estimate of the relative effort for each discipline throughout the four phases of RUP lifecycle.

What happens at the end of each phase in RUP lifecycle?

At the end of:

  • Inception phase, LCO (Lifecycle Objectives) milestone review occurs- for stakeholders to assess the state of the project that scope, requirements and the plan of the project is clearly identified.
  • Elaboration phase, LCA (Lifecycle Architecture) milestone review occurs- stakeholders assess that project vision is stable, risks are managed and requirements are documented as much in detail, expenses are realistic.
  • Construction Phase, IOC (Initial Operational Capability) review occurs -stakeholders assess that software and supporting documentation are ready to be deployed, detailed iteration plans are in place for the next phase, risks and expenditures are stable and managed.
  • Transition Phase, PR (Product Release) milestone review occurs – stakeholders assess that the system, including supporting documentation and training, is ready for deployment. That the system can be supported and operated once in production with acceptable expenditures.


What does JAD stand for?

Joint Application Development

What is the definition of JAD?

JAD is an interactive systems design concept involving discussion groups in a workshop setting.

Who uses JAD?

JAD usually is used in information systems for design or development. In recent years it is used even in non-IT applications in the form of a structured workshop where people come together to plan projects, design systems or make business decisions.

How useful is a JAD?

  • Accelerates Application development, adaptation and selection – during processes of gathering requirements, external design or prototypes, user test case documentations, training, post-implementation reviews
  • Implements Customer satisfaction – where any changes or improvements to the project can be implemented satisfactorily
  • Increases developers’ productivity
  • Request for proposal development
  • Improves communications between: user and IT, user and user and IT and IT
  • Enables consensus, commitment and partnership across the enterprise

Who is an executive sponsor in JAD? What is his/her role?

  • Executive sponsor is a high-ranking person in the business organization
  • He establishes the project vision, scope, project resources and selects business team members who have the proper understanding and commitment to the project.

What is the role of a stakeholder?

  • Understands current business processes, challenges and critical risk factors
  • Makes business decisions and provide requirements for the business
  • Provides subject matter expertise.

Who is a facilitator in JAD?

The facilitator serves as a guide to:

Direct the flow of discussions

Elicit participation from team members

Mediate and resolve conflicts

Maintain the focus of the sessions

What is the role of a facilitator in JAD?

  • Lead the Group
  • Have excellent communication skill
  • Facilitate group discussions and dynamics
  • Implement JAD process
  • Does not contribute his/her opinions during JAD discussions

What is the role of a BA in JAD process?

  • Maintain Process and data models
  • Record stakeholder decisions, issues and action items
  • Produce all JAD plan, session and wrap-up deliverables
  • Sometimes act as a facilitator

Who are the participants of JAD sessions?

Executive sponsor, BA, users, stakeholders, facilitator, IT representative and scribe.


Who is a scribe?

Scribe is a person who records and publishes the proceedings of the JAD sessions in a timely manner. The scribe, however, similar to facilitator, does not contribute to the sessions, apart from asking for a review or clarifying some points of the discussions in some cases.

What are the parts of a JAD plan?

  • JAD Plan Preparation
  • JAD Plan session
  • JAD Plan wrap-up

What are the steps of JAD discussion process?

Planning the meeting: the facilitator plans for the preparation of a JAD session selecting and forming the team members Setting up the meeting: facilitator sets up the meeting with the team members Running the meeting: facilitator monitors the discussions of the meeting Follow through: summary of the meeting with minutes of the meeting and following up

What are the benefits of JAD?

  • Enhanced communication and relationship between business end users and IT personnel.
  • Build consensus and ownership
  • Reduced system cost and development time
  • Reduced function creep
  • Improved system quality and productivity
  • Design cross-functional solutions
  • Helps the job done in the right time

BA Requirements questions

What is a process?

A step by step mode of accomplishing a task.

What is a business process?

Business process is a process followed by a company to run their business

What is requirement?

As Per BABOK guide, official definition of requirement is:

  1. “A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective.” In simpler words, a decision-making process to derive requirements from needs.
  2. “A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a solution or solution component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification or other formally imposed documents.” It is a step where business requirements are drafted as solutions requirements to get started with developing the solution.

What is role of Business analyst in Requirement elicitation?

  • Identify the stakeholders (Right and relevant) by using different approaches.
  • Come up with elicitation technique that works.
  • Elicited and understand the requirements.
  • Categorize them into different types (business, functional etc.) and also prioritize them by using MOSCOW, Story points.
  • Document and sent it for validation to various stakeholders.
  • Once approved BA should manage BRD throughout the project.

What is BRD (Business Requirement Document)?

BRD is formal high level agreement document between Client and vendor. BRD should clearly define scope of project (in scope and out of scope). BRD is a requirement package with business and stakeholders requirements.

What do you mean by scope of project?

Scope is defined as limit or boundary of project. Scope of project plays an important role in success of project. Poor management of scope is one of major reason for failure of project. Good management of scope of project is important. It will depends on:

  • devote adequate time to fully defining the requirements
  • reach a formal agreement on the scope with the stakeholders
  • avoid scope creep

What is scope creep?

Scope creep is when un-authorized or un-budgeted tasks lead to uncontrolled alterations to the documented requirements during the course of the project.

What are the key component of BRD?

o   Business Problem Statement
o   Current Business Process
o   Scope Statement(s)
o   Key Business Objectives
o   Project Completion Criteria
o   Limitations
o   Risks
o   Assumptions
o   Functional Requirements
o   Non-Functional Requirements
o   Features and Functions
o   Reporting Requirements
o   Delivery Method
o   New/Modified Business Process
o   Data Retention/Archiving
o   Training
o   Stakeholder List
o   Quality Measures
o   Checklists (Process and Requirements)

What are the objectives of BRD?

The most common objectives of the BRD are:

  • To gain agreement with stakeholders
  • To provide a foundation to communicate to a technology service provider what the solution needs to do to satisfy the customer’s and business’ needs
  • To provide input into the next phase for this project
  • To describe how the customer/business needs will be met by the solution

Who are all involved during BRD?

The following should be involved in creation of the BRD:

  • Business Partners / Product Management
  • BAs / SMEs
  • PMO
  • QA/Change Management

What are attributes of good requirements?

  • Clear – no ambiguity
  • Complete
  • Consistent
  • Testable
  • Independent so that we can prioritize
  • Feasible
  • Traceable
  • Concise
  • Necessary
  • Correct

What is the purpose of SRS?

  • Provide a basis for developing the software design.
  • Establish the basis for agreement between the customers and the suppliers on what the software product is to do.
  • Reduce the development effort.
  • Serve as a basis for enhancement.
  • Provide a basis for estimating costs and schedules.
  • Provide a baseline for validation and verification.

What is BRD or Synonym of BRD IS —————————————————

Business requirement Specification

What is difference between BRD and FRD/FRS?

High level in nature low level in nature
Written from the perspective of customer Written from the perspective of  system
Answers what the system should do Answers how the system will perform
Connected with business problem statement Connected with solution for the problem

Synonym of requirement analysis is ——————————————————-

Requirement engineering

What are different elicitation techniques?

  • Interview
  • Focus group
  • JAD
  • Brainstorming
  • Prototyping
  • Document analysis
  • Survey and questionnaires
  • Observation
  • Workshops

Use case

What is best elicitation technique?

It will depends on:

  • Number of stakeholders related to project
  • Where are they located
  • Availability of Stakeholders
  • Complexity of project etc.,

How would deal with difficult stakeholders?

  • Explain them the benefit of the project and their incentive in making it successful.
  • Show commitment to work with them
  • Make them to engage to provide their input.

What all are the documents does BA will provide?

BRD, SRS, RTM, Use case specification, Functional requirement specification, UML Diagrams, User stories for agile

How would you manage the rapidly changes requirements?

  • Need to follow strict change control plan.
  • When the person comes up with new requirements, BA and his team will work on it and come up with impact analysis report.
  • These report is send to change control board (CCB).
  • If they approve BA should include those requirements in BRD.
  • Team should work on how to implement those requirements.

The changing requirements is not a problem in Agile as they are added to the backlog and prioritised. Though a requirement cannot change during a sprint as a rule.

What are non-functional requirements?

Non-functional requirements are requirements which are used to judge the quality or operation of system.

What is JAD?

JAD is acronym for Joint Application Development. JAD is defined as structured session in which both technical team and business team are involved to elicit and analyse the requirements.

Useful for technical team to clarify their concern and start developing the product within less time and less errors. Higher customer satisfaction.

What challenges does BA faces while gathering requirements?

  • Unavailability of stakeholders for required time.
  • Lack of clarity what does they want from final product (unclear requirements).
  • Constantly changing requirements.
  • Some requirements are not align towards the project objective.

What are the main qualities of requirements?

The golden rule to measure the quality of requirements is “SMART” rule.






In case of user stories “INVEST” rule:







What are business requirements?

A: Business requirements are high-level requirements. They are mostly align towards organization’s goals. These requirements mostly focus on “What should the final product /system should accomplish”.

Who is responsible for eliciting Business Requirements?

Business analyst

What are functional requirements?

Functional requirements are low-level (high detailed) requirements. These requirements define “How does the system work”. These are behavioural requirements.

Role of A BA

What are the 3 most important skills or qualities a good business analyst?

  • Communication Skills. Business analysts must be good communicators. …
  • Problem-Solving Skills. No project is without problems. …
  • Critical Thinking Skills. …
  • Documentation and Specification Skills. …
  • Analysis Skills. …
  • Visual Modelling. …
  • Facilitation and Elicitation Skills. …
  • Business Analysis Tools.


What is a Use case?

Use case is a list of steps defining interaction between an actor and a system. Use case captures the functional requirements of the system.

Who is an Actor/How to identify actor/ what are the basic types of actors that can exist in a Use Case diagrams?

Actors are not a part of the system, they represent anyone or anything that interacts with the system. Can be personal-Human, Systems/Software, Hardware, Timer/Clock, or Organization. Are external entities.

Actors can be:

  1. Primary — Primary actors initiate a use case; are those TO WHOM system provide services (Customer).
  2. Secondary actors support a use case or receive something a value from a use case. /THOSE WHO HELP THE System to provide services.

What is use case diagram used for?

The use case diagram defines the role of each actor that is associated to a particular role or system. A use diagram is also a behavioural diagram and a part of UML.

An example of this is an “Order Management” as the main function, in such a case the person that is given the order is an actor.

What is an alternate flow in a Use case?

If a certain situation is not applicable then alternate flow – using a different path to get the same end point or result.

What is an exception flow in a use case?

Not the happy path – it is usually unexpected or usual result or error then how should the system handle this.

What are extends and includes within a use case?

Include – this action has to take place.

Extend –it is an action that may take place.

7a. what’s the difference between <<include>> and <<extend>> relationships and the criteria for use each one? And what is your recommendation on usage on these relationships?

What documents are used for use cases?

There are 2 documents:

  • FRD (functional requirement document)
  • SDD (system design document) which can also be called TRS (Technical

Requirements specifications)

what types of requirements should not be documented in use cases?

Use cases should be written from the user point of view.  How should the system function when using it- So don’t include “behind the scenes” specifics like what is stored in the data base or how the system will validate the information.  That would go in tech specs.  The people signing off on use cases are typically business users and the people using the use cases are typically software developers.

Any non- functional requirements [example: usability, design, performance.] that cannot be directly related to the use cases should not be documented in Use cases. These non-functional requirements are documented in Supplementary Specification Document.

Tell me the importance of a flow chart?

The flow chart gives a clear graphical representation of an implemented process. This makes the system simple to understand for all persons involved in the project.

What are the essential components of a Use case?

  • Use case name:  The use case should be labelled so that it immediately describes the purpose of the use case. Usually, VERB/NOUN is sufficient. For example, “Place Order.”
  • Actors: Identify who the main individuals and systems involved in the use case are going to be. Any actor that is used in the use case’s flow of events must be named up front.
  • Assumptions/Pre-conditions: Define what the state of the world is prior to the beginning of the flow of events described in the use case.
  • Post-conditions: Explain what the state of the world will be once the flow of events described in the use case occurs.
  • Business rules: These are the operating rules that govern or constrain the environment in which the process flow happens. For example, “placing an order can only happen between 9AM and 5PM” is a business rule. The use case must obey these rules.
  • Normal process flow: Define the “happy path” for the process flow, step by step and sequentially numbered. The “happy path” essentially means what the default flow is, without accounting for exceptions, conditions, or errors. It should lead to the successful conclusion stated in the post-conditions.
  • Alternate process flows: When there are major decision points or exceptions that create a different path to the conclusion of the use case, then each of those alternate process flows must be defined step by step just like you did with the normal process flow. If you numbered the normal process flow sequentially and the alternate flow begins in a certain step, you can just start the description of the alternate flow from there.

What is a Use case Realization?

Use case realization provides a construct to organize artefacts which shown how the physical design of a system supports the logical business behaviour outlined by a used case.

How would you explain a use case to someone that’s new to use cases or to a customer?

Pictorial way of your business processes, what you do in the process of finishing a business task.

What is the difference between System Use case and a Business Use case?

System use case represents the use cases which are done by the system (not manually).

For example: In an online hotel reservation system a user books a room. So the booking is a system use case and the user is a system user.

Business use case represents the use cases which are done manually. It is not necessarily done by the system.

For Example: Manual hotel reservation via telephone call. A user calls the hotel and books a room. Here telephoning is not a system use case, because it is not done by the system. The user is also not a system user, because they do not interact with the system.

What is your recommended approach on documenting business rules within use case specifications?

If not as a section in the template, Pre-conditions, assumptions, constraints

What’s the worst use case you have seen?

A1. The worst use case I’ve seen is a use case without a screenshot and without a UML diagram.

A2. One that was 75 pages long, and covered about 60 alternate flows that made it very difficult to understand. The use case had to be abstracted into a Visio diagram, with references to details at each step.

A3. Use cases should only be as detailed as required. Too much detail makes them unusable.

What are Pro(S) and Con(S) of a Use Case Development?

A1.Use cases are very easy to document scenarios for business users to understand. It isn’t easy to capture business rules in use cases.

A2.  Pros: easy to understand, communicate, reduces effort, used in all project phases.

Cons: time consuming, not always maintained.

What do you like about Use Case Development?

A1. Use cases can serve as the basis for test cases, and user documentation. They are easy to use in verifying functional behaviour with business users.

A2. Identify the use case, actors, post and pre- conditions.

Should technology be documented in a use case specification?

Not really. Use cases are more similar to functional business requirements.

What criteria do you use to drive and scope your use cases?

You’d want them to be detailed enough that a programmer could develop from, and test cases could be developed. You’ll likely need a separate matrix for business rule documentation.

What is the relationship between use cases and test cases?

A1. A use case is a:

A high-level scenario where you specify the functionality of the application from a business perspective.


Whereas a test case is:

The implementation of the high-level scenario (use case) wherein one gives detailed and step-by-step account of procedures to test a particular functionality of the application. Things get lot technical here.


A2. A use case describes an entire flow of interaction that the user has with the system/application for e.g. a user logging into the system and searching for a flight, booking it and then logging out is a use case. There are multiple ways a user can interact with a system, and they all map to positive/ negative use cases.

Test cases are written on the basis of use cases. The test cases check if the various functionalities that the user uses to interact with the system is working fine or not.

Who’s the primary audience of use case specification? Is IT the primary audience of the use cases?

Business users

What are some pitfalls or typical problems that people run into use case development for the first time or any time?

  • Inability to show the sequence makes it confusing for the first time developer.
  • Identifying all actors and use cases can be challenging
  • Identifying the relationships can be difficult.

Use case specifications are in a written format. What style do you like to follow when writing your use case specifications (e.g. prose, bulleted-list, essential use case, tabular)?

Answer yourself.

What is an Activity Diagram?

Activity diagram is a basically a flow chart to represent the flow from one activity to another. Described as an operation of the system. Captures the dynamic behaviour of the system.

What is the significance of using an activity diagram?

The activity diagram is important because it gives an outline of the work flow within the business as well as the activities and action completed.

E.g. for instance with a company, there is likely to be more than one department. In such a case each department, will have different access levels to the system.

So if there’s a Medical, HR and Accounts team they will only have access to screens that relate to each other.

The activity diagram will highlight the differences within the departments which will be very helpful for developers when they are designing and coding.

What is a sequence Diagram?

A sequence diagram shows how processes, actors, and systems operate with one another and another. Also called event diagrams, event scenarios& timing diagrams.

Why do we Use Sequence Diagram?

An organization’s technical staff can find sequence diagrams useful in documenting how a future system should behave. During the design phase, architects and developers can use the diagram to force out the system’s object interactions, thus fleshing out overall system design.


One of the primary uses of sequence diagrams is in the transition from requirements expressed as use cases to the next and more formal level of refinement. Use cases are often refined into one or more sequence diagrams. In addition to their use in designing new systems, sequence diagrams can be used to document how objects in an existing (call it “legacy”) system currently interact. This documentation is very useful when transitioning a system to another person or organization

What is UML?

Unified Modelling Language which is used to provide a standard language for constructing, visualizing and documenting the different components within a system.

What is UML State Diagram?

It clarifies the purpose of the diagram & different components in a System.

What is the purpose?

  • To model dynamic aspect of a system.
  • To model life time of a reactive system.
  • To describe different states of an object.

What are the different types of diagrams and what do you know about them?

Use case, activity, sequence, state

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